**QUESTION**

1. High cholesterol was investigated as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) by recruiting 639 cases of CHD and 700 controls. There were 49 cases of CHD among 72 individuals with high cholesterol and 590 cases of CHD among 1267 individuals with normal cholesterol levels.

Calculate the odds ratio of having CHD, comparing individuals with high cholesterol and those with normal cholesterol levels.

*Please express the answer in decimals rounding to two
decimal places. No text is required.*

*2. *

Question 5

A group of 2,000 adults who reported low-intake of red meat and 3,500 adults who reported high-intake of red meat are followed over time. After 5 years of follow-up, 20 of those with low-intake of red meat and 50 with high-intake of red meat developed colon cancer.

Calculate the cumulative incidence ratio of colon cancer among those with high red meat intake compared to those with low red meat intake .

*Please express the answer in decimals rounding to two
decimal places.*

Lung Cancer | No lung Cancer | Total | |
---|---|---|---|

Smoking | 100 | 400 | 500 |

No smoking | 20 | 480 | 500 |

Total | 120 | 880 | 1,000 |

*Please provide the answer in percentages. *

*3. *A randomised controlled trial tested whether
low-dose aspirin was useful in lowering the occurrence of
myocardial infarctions. In this trial 16,000 participants were
recruited and were randomly allocated to receive either low-dose
aspirin or placebo pills. 8000 trial participants received the
low-dose aspirin and 8000 received placebo pills. At the end of the
trial period, 450 cases of myocardial infarction had been recorded
in the low-dose aspirin group and 600 cases in the placebo
group.

Calculate the risk of myocardial infarction in the experimental group.

*Please express the answer in decimals rounding to three
decimal places.*