QUESTION

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# Consider a $31 / 2$ digit digital voltmeter with a full scale of $10.00 \mathrm{~V}$ (this means that this voltmeter reads values at increments of $0.01 \mathrm{~V}$ ). The manufacturer has specified that the bias limit for this instrument is $0.3 \%$ of full scale. Repeat readings of a voltage using this voltmeter are as follows: $9.52,9.65,7.39,7.00,7.84,8.59,7.03,9.60,9.00,8.74 \mathrm{~V}$. (a) Determine the uncertainty of this measurement, if i) a single reading is used and ii) if the average of all previous repeat readings is used. Present the uncertainty values rounded appropriately. Round the first value of the measured voltages (namely, 9.52 V) to the appropriate number of significant digits. (b) What can you say about the error of this measurement? Can you determine the value of the error? Can you determine the accuracy of this voltmeter? (c) In your opinion, are these measurements significantly biased? Are they precise? The answer to this question is subjective and would depend on the requirements for the accuracy of these measurements. Discuss the context of your answer.  