Question Solved1 Answer There are three main stakeholders in research namely the respondents, the researchers and the funding bodies. These stakeholders are subjected to ethical practices. Ranjit Kumar, (2014). Evaluate any FIVE (5) potential ethical issues relating to the researcher. 500 WORDS RESEARCH METHODOLGY

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There are three main stakeholders in research namely the respondents, the researchers and the funding bodies. These stakeholders are subjected to ethical practices. Ranjit Kumar, (2014).

Evaluate any FIVE (5) potential ethical issues relating to the researcher. 500 WORDS

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

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Answer:   FIVE (5) potential ethical issues relating to the researcher: 1. Study design and ethics approval According to COPE, “good research should be well adjusted, well-planned, appropriately designed, and ethically approved. To conduct research to a lower standard may constitute misconduct.” This may appear to be a stringent criterion, but it highlights the basic requirement of a researcher is to conduct a research responsibly. To achieve this, a research protocol should be developed and adhered to. It must be carefully agreed to by all contributors and collaborators, and the precise roles of each team member should be spelled out early, including matters of authorship and publications. Research should seek to answer specific questions, rather than just collect data. It is essential to obtain approval from the Institutional Review Board, or Ethics Committee, of the respective organisations for studies involving people, medical records, and anonymised human tissues. The research proposal should discuss potential ethical issues pertaining to the research. The researchers should pay special attention to vulnerable subjects to avoid breech of ethical codes (e.g. children, prisoners, pregnant women, mentally challenged, educationally and economically disadvantaged). Patient information sheet should be given to the subjects during recruitment, detailing the objectives, procedures, potential benefits and harms, as well as rights to refuse participation in the research. Consent should be explained and obtained from the subjects or guardians, and steps should be taken to ensure confidentiality of information provided by the subjects.   2. Data analysis It is the responsibility of the researcher to analyse the data appropriately. Although inappropriate analysis does not necessarily amount to misconduct, intentional omission of result may cause misinterpretation and mislead the readers. Fabrication and falsification of data do constitute misconduct. For example, in a clinical trial, if a drug is found to be ineffective, this study should be reported. There is a tendency for the researchers to under-report negative research findings, and this is partly contributed by pressure from the pharmaceutical industry which funds the clinical trial. To ensure appropriate data analysis, all sources and methods used to obtain and analyse data should be fully disclosed. Failure to do so may lead the readers to misinterpret the results without considering possibility of the study being underpowered. The discussion section of a paper should mention any issues of bias, and explain how they have been dealt with in the design and interpretation of the study.   3. Authorship There is no universally agreed definition of authorship. It is generally agreed that an author should have made substantial contribution to the intellectual content, including conceptualising and designing th ... See the full answer