What design? Analyze the design of each research
example reported. Is it a sample survey, an observational

study, or an experiment? If a sample, what are the popula-
tion, the parameter of interest, and the sampling procedure?
If an observational study, was it retrospective or prospective?
If an experiment, describe the factors, treatments, randomi-
zation, response variable, and any blocking, matching, or
blinding that may be present. In each, what kind of conclu-
sions can be reached?
Does the use of computer software in Introductory Statis-
tics classes lead to better understanding of the concepts?
A professor teaching two sections of Statistics decides
to investigate. She teaches both sections using the same
lectures and assignments, but gives one class statistics
software to help them with their homework. The classes
take the same final exam, and graders do not know which
students used computers during the semester. The profes-
sor is also concerned that students who have had calculus
may perform differently from those who have not, so she
plans to compare software vs. no-software scores sepa-
rately for these two groups of students.

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