Part 1: Pesticide Spraying Case Study An insect pest has attacked about 20 percent of the trees in a pure stand of white pine. In an effort to reduce his economic loss, the owner has his forest crop sprayed each spring with a relatively new pesticide. The species that he is trying to eliminate is normally preyed upon by other insects, a parasite, and song birds from nearby woods. To the south of his property is a bird sanctuary for rare species of waterfowl and the carnivorous osprey. He has been assured that natural barriers and the wind direction will keep the pesticide out of the wildife area. The three areas shown on the diagram (Figure 1) were carefully studied over a five-year period by researchers from a nearby university. Insect populations were estimated, fish and bird populations studied, soil samples collected, and pesticide concentrations measured in an effort to determine the overall environmental influence of this new pesticide. The results are recorded in Table 1.

Table 1: Pesticide Spraying Results

Part 1: Pesticide Spraying Analysis. Use your graph and data table to answer these questions. 1. Plot a graph which shows the changes over time of the population of insect pests in each area: A, B and C. a. Why did the population of pests in Area A increase in 1978 when, in 1977 , it appeared that the pest had been almost completely eliminated? b. What indication is there that Area $C$ has not been directly affected by the aerial spraying of the pesticide? 2. Discuss the effect that the pesticide had on natural pest controls in each area. a. Which categories would be considered natural pest controls? b. How did this eventually influence the size of the population? 3. Consider the effect that the pesticide had on fish and bird species. a. Why is the concentration of pesticide so high in fish and bird species? b. What change in the concentrations of pestidide in the fish and bird life represent the point where significant change in mortality occurs? c. Suggest a food chain that would link the pine stand vegetation to the poor nesting success of the birds. 4. What method(s) could be used to remedy this "eco-mess"? 5. How did the use of this pesticide affect species diversity and therefore environmental stability?

Conclusions. 6. Name two benefits for the use of commercially produced chemical pesticides: 7. Name two problems that are caused by the use of commercially produced chemical pesticides: 8. Name two benefits to the use of integrated pest management practices: 9. Name two problems caused by the use of integrated pest management practices:
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