Teri goes to see her PCP after feeling depressed last couple of months as well as experiencing a seizure earlier this week. The physician orders a few test, results are shown below:
- Low hematocrit
- Low levels of Vit B12
- Low Oxygen levels
- Presence of autoantibodies against the parietal cell
- Peripheral blood smear shows abnormal RBC (large pale RBCs)
After viewing the results, Teri is diagnosed with Pernicious Anemia; a condition in which autoantibodies destroys the parietal cells found within the stomach.
Address each of the following regarding Teri’s case:
- Since the parietal cell is destroyed, which substance(s) is Teri lacking as a consequence?
- What is the correlation between destruction of parietal cells and Vit B12 deficiency?
- Due to her condition, Teri lacks Pepsin. Explain why.
- If Teri were healthy, explain what her RBCs would look like?
- What is hematocrit?
- Low oxygen levels stimulate her body to create new RBCs by stimulating which process? Explain that process in depth.
- What protein transports oxygen in our body and explain its structure?
- What cell secretes antibodies and explain the various functions of antibodies.
- What are the different types of antibodies and give two characteristics for each?
- Explain the structure of an immunoglobulin.